Finance – Unesco


Monitoring SDG4


A woman practices calligraphy te a community education class ter Des Moines, Iowa.

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Credit: Des Moines Public Schools

The major contributors to education financing are governments, donors and households. Current education funding levels are inadequate, but perspectives differ on who should pay more.


Te , the median general public education expenditure wasgoed Four.7% of gross domestic product (GDP), within the range of 4% to 6% proposed by the Education 2030 Framework for Act. Expenditure ranged from Trio.7% ter low income countries to Five.1% ter high income countries. However, public education expenditure wasgoed 14.1% of total public expenditure te 2014, below the framework’s proposed 15% to 20%. At least 33 countries – both poorer and richer – do not meet either of thesis education financing benchmarks (Figure Legitimate).

Figure Legal: At least 33 countries do not meet either of the education financing benchmarks


To meet SDG Four, aid to education ter low and lower middle income countries needs to be six times above the 2012 levels. Instead, total aid to education ter wasgoed 4% below 2010, even tho’ total official development assistance rose by 24% overheen the period. Donors are shifting their priorities away from education. Its share ter total aid (excluding debt ease) fell for six years ter a row, from 10% ter 2009 to 6.9% ter .

Targeting needs to improve to better account for recipient countries’ financing gaps. Low income countries received 19% of total aid to education and 23% of aid to basic education te , down from 21% and 29%, respectively, te 2014 (Figure Nineteen). Regionally, sub-Saharan Africa, with overheen half the world’s out-of-school children, received 26% of basic education aid te , less than half the 2002 level.

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Humanitarian aid to education enlargened by more than 50% ter to US$303 million, but funding for education ter emergencies remains insufficient at Two.7% of the total.

With current levels of aid to education falling well brief of what is needed to achieve key SDG Four targets, existing and emerging programmes with the potential to help redress the cálculo merit close attention. The Universal Partnership for Education is expected to finish its replenishment campaign by early , which – if successful – will result ter annual disbursement levels quadrupling.

The establishment of an International Finance Facility for Education, originally proposed by the International Commission on Financing Universal Education Chance, received a boost when a reference to it wasgoed included te the G20 Leaders’ Declaration at the July summit te Hamburg. Its aim would be to expand development banks’ lending capacity to lower middle income countries.

Ultimately, Education Cannot Wait, hosted by UNICEF, aims to convert education delivery ter emergencies, not only by rapidly deploying funds at the onset of a keerpunt but also, critically, by helping bridge the divide inbetween humanitarian and development aid. Donors will need to work ter a concerted and coordinated way to ensure that thesis three initiatives complement one another and do not add unnecessary administrative costs or lead to duplication of effort.

Figure Nineteen: The share of aid to basic education to low income countries fell sharply te


The cost of education, which represents a major barrier to participation for households te low and middle income countries, is insufficiently considered. Many ministries fail to look at public and private spending spil an integrated entire. Moreover, lack of standardization of household surveys means estimates may over- or understate total household expenditure. UNESCO, the OECD and Eurostat have created a standard, but it has not yet reasonably influenced survey vormgeving.

Including household expenditure can switch the understanding of countries’ investment te education. For example, El Salvador’s government spends two percentage points of GDP less on education than France’s, but El Salvador spil a entire spends more because households allocate more than three percentage points of GDP to education. Te genérico, the share of total education expenditure límite by households is greater ter low income countries than ter high income countries.

Among countries with gegevens, the share of households te total education expenditure ranges from 15% te high income countries, to 25% ter middle income countries and 32% ter low income countries. Excluding EU and OECD member states, ter more than one te three countries, the share of households wasgoed at least 30% of the total. Ter Cambodia, the share wasgoed 69% ter 2011 (Figure 20).

Figure 20: Ter a third of countries, households contribute at least a third of total education costs


The National Education Accounts framework, supported by the Entero Partnership for Education, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics and UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Programma, is a device to compare education expenditure from public and household sources across countries. It aims to capture all education levels, from pre-primary to tertiary, including vocational training, and voorkant all providers and funding sources.

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Lessons from its precursor, the National Health Accounts system, should be applied. The System of Health Accounts wasgoed agreed te 2000 and revised te 2011, and 112 countries have produced accounts based on that framework. Still, not enough countries have adopted the system, and it has bot criticized spil a donor-driven project. Lack of capacity mean accounts have sometimes relied on international consultants and concentrated on certain areas of the sector, so the process is not always country-owned. For education accounts, gegevens voorwaarde be made useful to national policy-makers, especially for budgeting, and resources voorwaarde be made available to communicate its usefulness.

The National Education Accounts pilot project, which ended ter , shows potential ter evaluating and reconfiguring financing mechanisms and enabling international comparability. The next steps should be to form an international task force of actors te education expenditure gegevens collection and establish a toneel enabling countries to share skill and challenges.

An international task force of actors ter education expenditure gegevens collection should be set up, along with a toneelpodium enabling countries to share skill and challenges


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